Full text: Beschäftigungspolitik (72)

able to contribute to Austria's competitiveness and motivate further vocational
training.
Apprenticeship training should be a demand-oriented training in more
broadly defined trades~ Tho social partners, therefore, agreed on establishing
"Gruppenlehrberufe" (comprehensive apprenticeships teaching several voca-
tional skills which enable the graduate to work in various related occupations)
with various technical disciplines.
Moreover, the number of apprenticeships of higher technical grade is to be
increased. Young people must be better motivated to start apprenticeships in
vocations of a high technical grade and apprenticeship pIaces in these fields
should be particularly promoted. Among other things, the social partners
agreed on a promotion of apprentice workshops. In vocations with a less de-
manding apprenticeship the rate of drift-away is often very high and retraining
for other fields is not unusual.
The possibility for those having finished an apprenticeship to attain uni-
versity entrance level through adequate study courses ("Berufsreife") repre-
sents a major step toward upgrading the ski lied worker image.
In the field of dual vocational training, not on!y qualitative improvements
are required but also acute quantitative problems have to be solved. There is an
urgent need to counter the consequences of a decreasing supply of apprentice-
ships, a problem aggravated by the decreasing possibilities of access to the vo-
cational education sector.
In view of the broad distribution of competencies for matters of Austrian
and foreign young people, the Advisory Council regards overlapping coopera-
tion as indispensable in order to develop and efficiently implement the neces-
sary countermeasures: An initiative "Training of Youth" involving al1 public
authorities and the social partners should be created.
2.2. Working Time sud Employmeut
Regulation of working time represents an instrument of economic policy
that is to be used to improve competitiveness, satisfy the interests of the em-
ployed and attain the maximum employment effects. The employment effects
of the three basic forms of regulation of working time discussed - Le. decou-
pling production time and working time, adjustment of working time to pro-
duction fluctuations and reduction of working hours - cannot be generally
classified as negative or positive. Neither more flexible working times nor re-
duction of working hours automatically create new jobs, but they can contrib-
ute to increasing or maintaining employment. To achieve the optimum em-
ployment effect it is necessary to agree on specific solutions, taking into ac-
count the specific problems and framework conditions.
The recommendations of the Advisory Council thus concern general as-
sumptions ofthe effects on an overall economic level (2.2.1-2.2.4) on the one
hand and on a branch-specific level (2.2.5-2.2.7) on the other hand.
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