Full text: Assess_Ceta

Research 14 into account inflates the Austrian trade surplus even more. The same trend is true for the EU-28, however the surplus is as distinct as in the Austrian case with goods exports to Canada amounting to around USD 41 billion and imports to more than USD 35 billion in 2014 (Source: UN Comtrade Database). 2.2. Tariffs Trade-weighted tariffs show that the average Canadian tariff protection against EU imports with 3.4% in total is higher than the corresponding tariff level of 1.43% in the EU (Austria 1.74%). The protection is highest for Canadian processed foods and other manufacturing. Thus, for the important Austrian and EU export sectors, machinery and equipment (here named ‘other machinery’) and chemicals, the Canadian tariff protection is already low. On the Austrian/EU side, tariff protection is highest in processed foods, motor vehicles, and agriculture (see Table 5). The crucial role of non-tariff barriers (NTM) for the new generation of free trade agreements such as CETA will be discussed in detail below. Table 5: Bilateral tariff rates by sector, 2011 Canada Austria EU Agriculture Forestry Fisheries 1.84% 1.87% 3.04% Other Primary Sectors 0.01% 0.10% 0.00% Processed Foods 20.48% 13.06% 12.99% Chemicals 0.90% 1.77% 1.96% Electrical Machinery 0.23% 0.75% 1.12% Motor Vehicles 5.37% 5.19% 6.77% Other Transport Equipment 0.76% 1.36% 1.30% Other Machinery 0.38% 1.67% 1.59% Metals and Metal Products 0.47% 2.64% 0.66% Wood and Paper Products 1.62% 0.75% 0.21% Other Manufacturing 6.52% 3.76% 2.79% Source: GTAP 9 3. THE PRO-CETA REPORTS – SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION Various reports have been commissioned which focus on the economic effects of CETA upon the European Union, Canada and upon particular EU countries including Austria. We will focus on those studies which have been cited most widely and thus had the strongest impact upon the political debate so far. These are: Joint Study by the European Commission and the Government of Canada (Joint Study)4: the study was produced in response to a request formulated by political leaders at the 2007 EU-Canada Summit und published in 2008. The report covers 35 sectors; the re- sults are reported only for EU and Canada. The evaluation of the economic impact is based on a GTAP-style CGE model with an extension to monopolistic competition and long-run 4 Joint Study by the European Commission and the Government of Canada: Assessing the costs and benefits of a closer EU – Canada economic partnership, Brussels 2008, see http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/html/141032.htm

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