Full text: Trading away democracy

Trading Away Democracy
18
21 All conversions in this paper are based on a conversion rate of 
July 2016 (1€ = US$1.109). 
22 PowerShift/TNI/SOMO, “The German Nuclear Phase-Out Put 
to the Test in International Investment Arbitration? Background 
to the new dispute Vattenfall v. Germany (II)”, 2013, p. 3, http://
power-shift.de/wordpress/ wp-content/uploads/2012/06/TNI-
PowerShift-Somo-Paper-Vattenfall- ICSID-case-updated-2013.pdf
 IISD, “The State of Play in Vattenfall v. Germany II: Leaving the 
German public in the dark”, 2014, http://www.iisd.org/sites/
default/files/ publications/state-of-play-vattenfall-vs-germany-II-
leaving-german-public- dark-en.pdf
23 CCPA, CEO, Friends of the Earth Europe, German NGO Forum 
on Environment and Development, TNI (2016) Investment 
Court System put to the test. New EU proposal will perpetuate 
investors’ attack on health and environment  Available on : 
http://corporateeurope.org/international-trade/2016/04/eu-
investment-proposal-won-t-prevent-corporate-attacks-health
24 International Investment Arbitration and Public Policy (IIAPP) 
(2011): Foresti v South Africa (Italy-South Africa BIT).
25 Kevin P. Gallagher, International Investment Agreements 
and  Sovereign Debt Restructuring – Mission Creep, in 
Kavaljit Singh and Burghard Ilge (eds), Rethinking Bilateral 
Investment Treaties: Critical Issues and Policy Choices (New 
Delhi: Both Ends, Madhyam, and Somo, 2016)
26 Karadelis, Kyriaki (2012): Can Veolia trash Egypt at ICSID?,  
Global Arbitration Review, 28 June.
27 Data retrieved from the following Government of Canada 
website in July 2016: http://w03.international.gc.ca/Commerce_
International/Commerce_Sector-Secteur.aspx?lang=eng
28 Corporate Europe Observatory/Transnational Institute (2014): 
Profiting from Crisis. How corporations and lawyers are 
scavenging profits from Europe’s crisis countries
29 UNCTAD (2014) Investor-State Dispute Settlement: an 
Information Note on the United States and the European 
Union, IIA Issue Notes, Number 2, June, http://unctad.org/
en/PublicationsLibrary/ webdiaepcb2014d4_en.pdf 
30 Data retrieved from the following Government of Canada 
website in July 2016: http://w03.international.gc.ca/Commerce_
International/Commerce_Indicator-Indicateur.aspx?lang=eng
31 The list of countries sued by EU investors for Financial and 
insurance activities includes: Cyprus, Austria, Cameroon, 
Mauritius, Ukraine, Greece, Russia, Poland, Slovakia, Georgia, 
Macedonia, Korea, Venezuela, Kyrgyzstan, Indonesia, Peru, Sri 
Lanka, Kazakhstan, Argentina, Czech Republic, Turkey, Tunisia, 
Estonia, Burundi, Malaysia.
32 Data compiled from http://investmentpolicyhub.unctad.org/ISDS
33 Data retrieved from the following Government of Canada 
website in July 2016: http://w03.international.gc.ca/
Commerce_International/Commerce_Sector-Secteur.
aspx?lang=eng
34 According to the ICSID website (https://icsid.worldbank.org/ 
apps/ICSIDWEB/cases/Pages/AdvancedSearch.aspx 
?eco=101), 575 cases were pending or concluded.  
145 of them related to the oil, gas and mining sector.
35 Whittington, Les (2010): Canadian mining firms worst for 
environment, rights: Report, The Star, 19 October.
36 Quoted in Kenn, Kip (2013): Landmark Canada/ EU trade 
agreement could have major implications for miners,  
Mineweb, 23 October.
37 Quoted in Kenn, Kip (2013): Landmark Canada/ EU trade 
agreement could have major implications for miners,  
Mineweb, 23 October.
38 Friends of the Earth Europe (2014): Dirty Deals: How trade 
talks threaten to undermine EU climate policies and bring tar 
sands to Europe, 9.
39 Pembina Institute, Oilsands 101: Climate Impacts.
Notes
1 Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (2015) NAFTA 
Chapter 11 Investor-State Disputes. Available at : https://www.
policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/
National%20Office/2015/01/NAFTA_Chapter11_Investor_State_
Disputes_2015.pdf  Two new disputes were made public since 
the publication of this report. 
2 Data retrieved from the following UNCTAD website in June 2016: 
http://investmentpolicyhub.unctad.org/ISDS/FilterByCountry 
3 The consolidated version of all chapters, annexes and declara-
tions of the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement 
(CETA) is available here: http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/
docs/2014/september/tradoc_152806.pdf
4 Quoted in Eric Frei « Schiedsrechtsexperte : TTIP-Gerichtshof 
würde wenig ändern », Der Standard, 2nd November 2015,  
http://derstandard.at/2000024886097/TTIP-Gerichtshof-
wuerde-wenig-aendern, translation : Pia Eberhardt
5 European Commission internal report about a meeting with 
Chevron on ISDS in TTIP, dated 29th April 2014. Obtained 
through an access to documents requests via the EU’s 
information disclosure regulation. On file with CEO.
6 Quoted in Kenn, Kip (2013): Landmark Canada/ EU trade 
agreement could have major implications for miners,  
Mineweb, 23 October.
7 Corporate Europe Observatory/Transnational Institute (2012): 
Profiting from Injustice. How law firms, arbitrators and finan-
ciers are fuelling an investment arbitration boom, chapter 4; 
van Harten, Gus 2012: Arbitrator Behaviour in Asymmetrical 
Adjudication: An Empirical Study of Investment Treaty 
Arbitration, Osgoode Hall Law Journal 50:1, 211-268.
8 UNCTAD (2016) Investment Dispute Settlement Navigator 
Available on http://investmentpolicyhub.unctad.org/
ISDS?status=1000 (consulted on 21st May 2016)
9 Tienhaara, Kyla (2010): Regulatory Chill and the Threat of 
Arbitration. A View from Political Science. 
10 Quoted in Greider, William (2001): The Right and US Trade Law. 
Invalidating the 20th Century, The Nation, 17 November.
11 IIAPP 2011: SD Myers v Canada (NAFTA Chapter 11).
12 Public Citizen (2014): Table of Foreign Investor-State Cases and 
Claims under NAFTA and Other US “Trade” Deals, August, 14.
13 Corporate Europe Observatory/Council of Canadians/ 
Transnational Institute (2013): The right to say no. EU-Canada 
trade agreement threatens fracking bans.
14 CCPA, CEO, Friends of the Earth Europe, German NGO Forum 
on Environment and Development, TNI (2016) Investment 
Court System put to the test. New EU proposal will perpetuate 
investors’ attack on health and environment Available on :  
http://corporateeurope.org/international-trade/2016/04/eu- 
investment-proposal-won-t-prevent-corporate-attacks-health
15 http://globalarbitrationreview.com/news/article/34783/
nafta-panel-admits-amicus-briefs-pharma-case/
16 Trew, Stuart (2013): Eli Lilly’s NAFTA lawsuit should  
prompt rethink of investor ‘rights’ deals, 30 August.
17 Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (2015) NAFTA 
Chapter 11 Investor-State Disputes. Available at : https://www.
policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/
National%20Office/2015/01/NAFTA_Chapter11_Investor_State_
Disputes_2015.pdf  Two new disputes were made public since 
the publication of this report. 
18 See note 16.
19 UNCTAD (2016) Investment Dispute Settlement Navigator 
Available on http://investmentpolicyhub.unctad.org/
ISDS?status=1000 (consulted on 21st May 2016)
20 UNCTAD (2016) Investment Dispute Settlement Navigator 
Available on http://investmentpolicyhub.unctad.org/
ISDS?status=1000 (consulted on 21st May 2016)
        

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