Volltext: Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft - 2008 Heft 3 (3)

Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft 34. Jahrgang (2008), Heft 3
have a negative effect on blue collar workers in manufacturing, but a po-
sitive effect on white collar workers. Overall the results again hint at an 
expected finding: The cumulative effect of imports on blue collar workers` 
wages in manufacturing is negative albeit low and on white collar workers 
is positive.  
Taking into consideration also the exports, there are positive wage ef-
fects of trade with both the East and the rest of the world in total manufac-
turing and in the total economy. In manufacturing there is also a positive 
effect of trade with the developed countries. Regarding the cumulative 
effects, overall trade contributed 17.1% and 14.3% to the real wage growth 
in manufacturing and in the total economy respectively.  
Again due to qualifications mentioned above about the employment ef-
fects, we compare the results with previous research. The findings are 
consistent with the negative import effect on blue-collar workers in Hofer 
and Huber (2003). They find no effect on white collar wages, but we find a 
positive effect of intermediate imports from the East. Aiginger et al. (1996) 
find a negative effect of imports from the East, which we also do, but only 
in the high skilled industries. Different from Winter-Ebmer and Zimmer-
mann (1998), who find no effect of imports, we do find negative effects. 
5.3 Wage share
Combining the long run effects on employment and wages, we get the 
joint effect of the changes in import penetration. Table 4c reports the cu-
mulative %-points effect of the actual change in the explanatory variables 
for low and high skilled and total manufacturing (partial effects for a given 
level of value added). 
Intermediate import penetration from the East resulted in a 11.4%-points 
cumulative decline in the wage share in manufacturing during 1990-2005 
and intermediate import penetration from the developed countries as well 
as from the rest of the world and final imports from the rest of the world 
contributed positively. The increase in import penetration overall seems 
to have resulted in a rather minor deterioration in the wage share of 
1.3%-points in manufacturing during the last 15 years. During this period 
the actual wage share has declined 10.7%-points in manufacturing.
6. Conclusions  
There is evidence of significant negative effects of FDI on both employ-
ment and wages. The negative employment effect of Austria’s investment 
abroad is primarily due to the rise in the employment in the foreign affili-
ates in the East. The negative wage effects are originating from affiliate 
employment in both the East and the developed countries in industry, but


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