INHALTSVERZEICHNIS CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................ 11 1. Introduction - The Economic Environment 11 1.1. Introductory Remarks 11 1.2. Economic Growth and Labour Market Development........................ 12 1.3. High Dynamism ofthe Austrian Labour Market 13 1.4. Shadow Economy 14 1.5. Deregulation and Privatization........................................................... 14 1.6. Globalization...................................................................................... 15 1.7. Opening ofthe Eastem Countries 15 1.8. EU-Membership................................................................................. 16 1.9. European Economic and Monetary Union......................................... 17 1.10. Monetary Policy................................................................................. 17 1.11. Income Policy 18 1.12. Taxes and Fiscal Charges on Labour 18 2. Recommendations 19 2.1. Skills 19 2.1.1. Skills as a Locational Factor 19 2.1.2. Further Vocational Training 19 2.1.3. Better Coordination of Schooling and Further Training....... 21 2.1.4. Financing of Further Vocational Training 21 2.1.5. Proof ofFurther Vocational Training................................... 22 2.1.6. Direct Utilization and Transferability of Further Training 22 2.1.7. Vocational Counseling 23 2.1.8. Apprenticeship Training 23 2.2. Working Time and Employment........................................................ 24 2.2.1. Decoupling ofProduction Time and Working Time............ 25 2.2.2. Adjustment ofWorking Hours to Production Fluctuations 25 2.2.3. Reduction ofWorking Time................................................. 25 2.2.4. Models ofDistributing Labour to Create More Employment 26 2.2.5. Working Time and Employment in Industry and Trade....... 28 2.2.6. Employment Effects through Liberalization ofShop Hours 28 2.2.7. Working Time Models to Prolong Employment in Seasonal Branches................................................................ 29 2.3. New Fields ofEmployment 29 2.3.1. Employment Potentials in Business-Related Services.......... 30 2.3.2. Employment Effects ofNew Communication Technologies 30 2.3.3. Employment Potentials in Personal Services........................ 31 2.4. Active Labour Market Policy............................................................. 33 5