transferable skills. The financing of such measures should be agreed upon in collective agreements as weil as company level agreements and should not be exclusively confined to individual agreements. No legal regulations are re- quired, if claims on further training can be satisfied in this way. The European Social Fund promotes further vocational training of employ- ees within Objective 4. This means an improvement in financing further training activities, as up to now these means of labour market policy have been restricted to the use by the unemployed. The effident use of these ESF means presupposes an additional effect, no indiscriminate distribution of grants and a better practical orientation of further training calls for a better study of the de- mand for further training courses on a local level. To be able to finance at least certain prerogative projects, it is necessary to set the appropriate priorities. 2.1.5. Proof 0/ Further Vocational Training The simultaneous existence of vocational education and further vocational training makes accreditation of skills acquired through further vocational training possible in many fields. Certificates to recognize final exams are nec- essary. Formal certificates increase the motivation for further education and facilitate access to the entire educational system. The transferability of skills acquired through further training is to be pro- moted through standardization (curricula for further training) without ques- tioning the flexibility ofthe system. Further vocational training must provide a valid proof of the acquired skills to improve prospects on the labour market. The further training system should be offered, wherever possible, in form of modules that could be combined into training units and included into the tra- ditional educational hierarchy. The Advisory Council supports the rapid implementation of the political agreement on the Berufsreife (university entrance test for those not having a final examination of a higher secondary school to attain fuH access to post- secondary and tertiary education and training). The integration of the dual vo- cational training into the educational system was promoted by the formal inte- gration ofvocational training schools into the secondary level of education. 2.1.6. Dlrect Utilizatlon and Transferability of Further Training In the further training sector, it is necessary to fmd a compromise between two contradictory requirements. On a direct and short-term basis, further training proves to be most successful when it is done for a specific workplace. On the other hand, further training should teach transferable skills (e.g. foreign languages and EDP skills) that sometimes cannot be utilized immediately but represent a precondition for future economic and technical developments. Companies are generally interested in improving skills that can be directly employed. Yet, the educational assignment of the schools cannot be restricted to instructing skills that can be immediately used in the working world. 22