Further training is a concern of both the company and the employed person and is usually implemented individually without state influence. To a major extent, the range of further training possibilities is oriented towards the re- quirements of the companies with the labour market policy playing a support· ing role. The increasing importance of further vocational training makes it necessary to reconsider the schools' curricula. The reasons for necessary restrictions in initial education are manifold e.g. the danger of overstrain in time and con- tents. The idea of "general education" is to be fundamentally reviewed. A modem vocational training depends, among other things, on the instruction of key qualifications, e.g. the application of information technologies, the intensifica- tion offoreign language instruction and the introduction of autonomous schont regulations. Further vocational training can then directly relate to the basic knowledge acquired at school. 2. I. 7. Vocational Counseling A basic prerequisite for an efficient educational policy is the detailed and comprehensive vocational orientation of youth as weil as infonnation for adults on the broad range of further training possibilities (by means of data banks and central infonnation facilities). The choice of education and vocation still seems to be based more on cur- rent individual interests and preferences than on long-term vocational pros· pects. Free education orientated on private interests with subsequent free re- training means an inefficient use of available resources from an overall eco- nomic and social point ofview. Improving the vocational guidance for graduates from high·school contin- ues to be a topical task, though some progress has been achieved by expanding study and vocational counselling activities (e.g. fairs) aswell as of career guidance centers. The vocational counselling centers should be increasingly oriented also toward the needs of adults seeking advice. The social partners have developed a concept for resttucturing vocational and educational counselling for the first grades of secondary and higher sec- ondary education. The working group of the Ministry of Education should ad- vance its implementation. 2.1.8. Apprenticeship Training The dual vocational training certainly deserves merits for the integration of young people into the working world. lt has definitely contributed, in past decades, to improving the skilled labour supply for the enterprises and to keeping youth unemployment low. However, refonns are necessary also in this field: Only a broadly defined initial vocational training that concentrates increasingly on the insttuction of social and communicative skills which become of greater importance will be 23