able to contribute to Austria's competitiveness and motivate further vocational training. Apprenticeship training should be a demand-oriented training in more broadly defined trades~ Tho social partners, therefore, agreed on establishing "Gruppenlehrberufe" (comprehensive apprenticeships teaching several voca- tional skills which enable the graduate to work in various related occupations) with various technical disciplines. Moreover, the number of apprenticeships of higher technical grade is to be increased. Young people must be better motivated to start apprenticeships in vocations of a high technical grade and apprenticeship pIaces in these fields should be particularly promoted. Among other things, the social partners agreed on a promotion of apprentice workshops. In vocations with a less de- manding apprenticeship the rate of drift-away is often very high and retraining for other fields is not unusual. The possibility for those having finished an apprenticeship to attain uni- versity entrance level through adequate study courses ("Berufsreife") repre- sents a major step toward upgrading the ski lied worker image. In the field of dual vocational training, not on!y qualitative improvements are required but also acute quantitative problems have to be solved. There is an urgent need to counter the consequences of a decreasing supply of apprentice- ships, a problem aggravated by the decreasing possibilities of access to the vo- cational education sector. In view of the broad distribution of competencies for matters of Austrian and foreign young people, the Advisory Council regards overlapping coopera- tion as indispensable in order to develop and efficiently implement the neces- sary countermeasures: An initiative "Training of Youth" involving al1 public authorities and the social partners should be created. 2.2. Working Time sud Employmeut Regulation of working time represents an instrument of economic policy that is to be used to improve competitiveness, satisfy the interests of the em- ployed and attain the maximum employment effects. The employment effects of the three basic forms of regulation of working time discussed - Le. decou- pling production time and working time, adjustment of working time to pro- duction fluctuations and reduction of working hours - cannot be generally classified as negative or positive. Neither more flexible working times nor re- duction of working hours automatically create new jobs, but they can contrib- ute to increasing or maintaining employment. To achieve the optimum em- ployment effect it is necessary to agree on specific solutions, taking into ac- count the specific problems and framework conditions. The recommendations of the Advisory Council thus concern general as- sumptions ofthe effects on an overall economic level (2.2.1-2.2.4) on the one hand and on a branch-specific level (2.2.5-2.2.7) on the other hand. 24