A possible model of job rotation is a maximum I year leave for recognized educational purposes except university studies during which a long-term un- employed person is hired as replacement (Danish model). Pilot projects are being implemented in Austria, too: Austria participates in the project "EU Job Rotation" within the community initiative "ADAPT". The transitional voluntary leave of an employee (sabbatical) and the simul- taneous hiring of an unemployed person can also be interesting in respect to the employment effect. The model of a publicly financed year of leisure that is not bound to personal or educational motives cannot be recommended; it was also stopped in Denmark. Another model is being discussed for the public service sector: Civil ser- vants are to have the possibility of working for four years for 80 percent of their salary and then take the fifth year off in which they also receive 80 per- cent ofthe salary. This idea, too, still needs thorough evaluation. The creation of a legal basis for similar models could be discussed in private sector as weIl. The Advisory Council recommends to start pilot projects by the collective bargaining partners in consultation with the Arbeitsmarktservice (AMS - La- bour Market Service) and to analyze the projects in detail after a given period as to employment increase or possible problems. 2.2.4.2. Part-time Work Personnel placement oriented towards customer frequency, increased pro- ductivity of part-time employees, easier handling of temporary replacement problems and possible cost reductions by avoiding organizational slack make part-time work for enterprises in certain sectors (e.g. trade) attractive and may result in a reduction of full-time employment and an increase of part-time employment (transforming jobs or creating new jobs). The effects on the un- employment rate depend on whether this demand is met from the pool of the officially unemployed or from the number of those who have so far not been part of the labour market. Definite statements as to the effect of (increased) part-time work on the unemployment rate can therefore not be made, but posi- tive effects on the participation rate are to be noticed. 1'0 increase the possibilities of employment in the part-time sector, part- time work must become more attractive. Elements of an attractive part-time employment are in particular - voluntary part-time employment - possibilities for part time employment for men and women also in me- dium and higher qualified positions possibilities for career development and individual career planning - possibility to change from full-time employment to part-time and vice versa 27