sessment of the arising public costs or revenue shortfalls must also take into account the financial, social and human costs of unemployment as weil as the present revenue shortfall due to the non-perfonnance ofthese services or satis- faction by the infonnal sector. Intemationally various models are being either discussed or applied. The models are generally based on tax benefits and reductions of social security contributions, partly in connection with service coupons. In all cases the public support aims at enabling adequate net wages despite a lower productivity and thus at satisfying the demand for household-related services through official employment. The Advisory Council recommends the evaluation of the international models discussed in this study in consultation with the Labour Market Service. In this connection, the experiences of existing private facilities in Austria are to be taken into account. Sodal Services The present far-reaching change in the social structure is directly reflected in different and additional requirements and demands by private households. Proceeding from available surveys, about 5% of the population need health and nursing services (in particular care of elderly people). Presently approxi- mately 40,000 people are taken care of by institutions offering out-patient nursing services; this means a share of 0,5% of the overall population. It is ex- pected that this figure will double in the forseeable future, making additional employment of 8,500 persons in the nursing service and 500 persons in the administrative sector necessary. An expansion to this extent would require considerable additional means. The Advisory Council recommends both an increased financial contribution of the public authorities under consideration of the budgetary restraints, and higher contributions of the recipients under consideration of the sodal situa- tion (at present app. 24%) to implement this employment potential; thereby measures have to be taken to ensure that in the case of increased private fi- nandal contributions, the recipients do not escape into the shadow economy. Part of the labour market relevant potential in the social services sector was already covered by the "Pflegegeld" (nursing allowance). To achieve the de- sired employment effect, the accurate use of the nursing allowance for buying qualified nursing services on the market or for partially compensating the nursing activity of family members must be guaranteed. The question of the social insurance of family members taking over nursing tasks remains un- solved. To implement a higher employment growth, the institutional framework conditions additionally must be changed in line with also still lacking direc- tives for subsidies. be able. The Advisory Council proposes to abolish em- ployment-impairing restrictions for those offering social services (planning safety, long-tenn targets, investment measures, pricing etc.) as weil as to cre- ate quality standards and a collective agreement. The Labour Market Service, 32