7 2.2 Summary of discussions 2.2.1 PANEL I – EXCHANGE OF EXPERIENCE ? What is the experience with Gender Budgeting analysis? ? Where do we stand? ? What is its success, what are limitations encountered? As an introduction to this session Mascha Madörin (Switzerland) pointed out that Gender Budget- ing is a compliance and new diligence question. There is a big difference between inside and out- side government activities. These differences refer to ? methods, ? questions as well as ? statistics and data. The reporting will appear very different whether it is an inside or outside government exercise. In- side government Gender Budgeting (as well as Gender Mainstreaming) is a technique of compli- ance. Mascha Madörin underlined that initiatives outside government have to have a clear idea of what the state has to do and these initiatives have to tell the state what to do. At the core of these exercises are incidence analysis and equal opportunity analysis. The standards developed in Switzerland focus on three elements: ? Who profits from public services? ? Impact of budgets on non-paid work. ? Impact on jobs (looking at procurement policies, consulting, subsidies etc). Mascha Madörin pointed out that looking at subsidies is a very important element as well. It implies looking at who gets the money, which is a question of power and control of the state. Elizabeth Villagomez (Spain) provided some introductory remarks as well and stated that Gender Budgeting initiatives are very heterogenous. Challenges for government driven activities are how to involve outside government actors. Evaluations and research on Gender Budgeting shows that those most successful are approaches which involve both, civil society activities (as a pushing fac- tor) as well as government activities. There is a need to sensitize governments. Gender Budgeting is an issue of governance, transparency and intensifying democratisation. Outside government ini- tiatives need to focus on how Gender Budgeting initiatives can have an influence on changing poli- cies. In the general discussion among experts from throughout Europe Gender Budgeting initiatives were presented and analysed focussing on lessons to be learned. The example of Ireland shows that equal opportunity is an obligation but does not translate into policies. Some modest pilots have not even been published. The experience in Andalucia involves the Ministry of Finance. There is a law which makes gender impact assessment compulsory. Regulations regarding statistics have been changed as well, it is compulsory to register sex as a category and to produce gender statistics. Still, the contents of these policies are not really emancipatory.