Spring Cleaning Joan Robinson I am one of the few survivors of the generation that learned economic theory before the Keynesian revolution. Alfred Marshall was the over- mastering influence on teaching in the English-speaking world. There were many disputed points within the Marshallian canon, such as the meaning of the "representative firm", but other schools -Walras, Pareto, the Austrians - were dismissed in footnotes. We used to say in Cambridge "Everything is in Marshall". I added later: the trouble is that everything eise is as well. The general practical moral of Marshallian teaching was the defense of laisser faire. Interference with the "free play of market forces", however well meant, will do more harm than good. Thus the devastating unemployment of the 1930s and Keynes' plea to do something about it created a confrontation. Everything is in Marshall. The most coherent and useable part of Marshall's theory is the analysis of the Short Period. The short period is not a length of time, but a Situation at a moment of time when equipment and stocks of inputs in existence and the available labour force provide for a potential supply of Output which may be less or more fully utilised. Marshall, using his one at a time method, analysed this question in terms of the fishing industry. Keynes adapted it to deal with changes in the general level of effective demand in an industrial economy. The coverage of the General Theory, is narrow. It says very little about international trade. The influence of the flow of investment on employ- ment is a central topic but accumulation as a historical process is very scrappily dealt with; the distribution of the flow of gross income between wages and profits is discussed but the formation of an overall 175