policymakers should bear in mind when using this concept to underpin their political strategies. 2. „Multi-speed“ Europe In recent years, the European Union has faced the most severe crisis since its existence. The private debt crisis followed by a public debt crisis has created economic stagnation and high rates of unemployment in many parts of Europe. Serious doubts have been raised about the design and vi- ability of the single currency, and simply keeping the European Union inte- grated and stable has been a challenge for politicians. In addition to an in- creasing sense of economic insecurity, recent developments in migration trends have led to a rise in popularity of far-right parties that promote na- tionalist and protectionist views and Euroscepticism, both in countries that have been part of the EU-project from the beginning and in new Member States. In Britain, this led to the decision to leave the EU. Figure 1: Frequency of the search terms „multi-speed europe“ and „multi-speed europe“ on Google since 2004 Google Trends data, own representation. This was the situation when Commission president Jean Claude Juncker put the idea of a Europe of different speeds back on the table in his „White Paper on the Future of Europe – Reflections and scenarios for the EU-27 by 2025“, published in March 2017. The resurgence in interest is reflected in the Google searches of the term (see figure 1). Juncker does not use the term directly but proposes a closer union of „those who want to do more“ as one of five possible scenarios for the future of the European Union (Eu- ropean Commission, 2017). While such increased cooperation of a smaller number of countries could facilitate policy progress on issues that are blocked by a veto of one or a few countries, the general idea of multi-speed is not supported by all Mem- 170 Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft 44. Jahrgang (2018), Heft 2