2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Executive Summary………………………………………………………………...3 2. Background and Scope of the Study……………………………………………...3 2.1. Approaches towards regulating lobbying……………………………………………….4 2.2. The Transparency Register of the European Parliament and the European Commission of 2011…...………………………………………………………………...………………..6 3. Legal Basis for a Mandatory Register…………………………………………….7 3.1.Article 298 (2) TFEU: Open, efficient and independent European administration…….7 3.2.Implied powers doctrine .……………………………………………………………...10 3.3.Article 352 TFEU…………………………………………………………………..….12 3.4.Treaty Reform…………………………………………………………………...……..13 4. Options to enhance the effectiveness of the current system……………....…..13 5. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………...….…15