Figure 9: Number of PPPs in the EU for particular sectors (2000-2015) Source: Tomasi (2016) based on the Dealogic Projectware Database. The significance of PPPs also varies within the EU member states. By far the largest number of PPPs can be apportioned to the United Kingdom with a value of EUR 120 billion (approximately 45 % of the total value). In absolute terms, this is followed by a group of southern European countries (Spain, Portugal and Italy) as well as France. However, if these absolute values are taken in relation to overall infrastructural investment, this picture changes somewhat. Alongside the United Kingdom, Portugal, Spain and Greece as well as Ireland and Hungary are at the top with a 10-15 % share of PPPs making up the total amount spent on infrastructural investment (Kappeler and Nemoz, 2010; Wagenvoort et al., 2010). In the following sections, we present an overview of the development of PPPs in France, Hungary and Portugal, particularly because these countries are the most relevant out of sample count- ries studied12. France is the historical exception in the water sector with the major role of PPPs within the scope of “délégation” to private companies. While in the 19th century, concessions were the dominant form, this changed around the turn of the century as part of the municipalisation movement which also took hold in France (Pezon, 2000). Since then, primarily leasing contracts (“affermage”) posing less risk for the private sector have been implemented, for which the public sector makes the investment (Bauby, 2009). Overall, it appears that the number of contracts “delegated” to private players has been declining rapidly since the beginning of the 2010s (BIPE, 2006; 2012; 2015). Alongside the absolute numbers, the average duration of the contract has also dropped to approximately 10 years (Eaufrance, 2017). Finally, the share of the remuneration that private companies negotiate for themselves when conclu- ding contracts as part of this delegation has decreased on average over the last decade. However, 12 In the context of the EU, PPP models in the Italian and Spanish sectors are particularly important (Tomasi, 2016).