5 provide no further explanation). Both energy and social policy led approaches are targeted towards a specific vulnerable group. 40% of countries use social support or energy cost subsidies as a primary basis for addressing energy poverty (Pye et al. 2015). These do not address the underlying structural issues but can be important short-term measures. 80% of countries have disconnection safeguard measures in place, that protect vulnerable consumers from being disconnected from services, sometimes targeted or only in winter, but in some countries these are blanket protections. The European Green Deal contains several explicit references to energy poverty. It recognises that addressing the issue is a key element of ensuring a Just Transition (European Commission, 2019). While the renovation rate in member states currently varies between 0.4% and 1.2% it needs to be doubled in order to achieve climate targets. Particular attention should be paid to renovating social housing and to financing schemes for low-income houses. The recovery scheme in light of the Covid-19 pandemic, Next Generation EU supports the aim of a ‘renovation wave’ (European Commission, 2020). The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (which has been amended as part of the Clean Energy for all Europeans Directive) demands all member states to retro-fit their building stock so that it is carbon neutral by 2050. Additionally, all new buildings need to be nearly zero- energy starting from the end of 2020. At the moment, the European Commission estimates, that ca. 75% of the European building stock is energy-inefficient and it is responsible for 40% of energy consumption and 36% of CO2- Emissions in the European Union (CLEAN ENERGY FOR ALL EUROPEANS PACKAGE). In October 2020, the Commission plans to publish a Communication and strategy on how renovation and energy efficiency of buildings are to be improved. 2.4. Austria According to the official Austrian definition, vulnerable consumers are categorised based on being part of a certain socioeconomic group, inter alia income, age, health characteristics. Similarly, in the National Energy- and Climate Plan, energy poverty is defined one- dimensionally, based on energy cost (Matzinger, 2019). Statistik Austria (2019) defines energy poor households as those that fall below the poverty threshold of 60% of median income and have substantially higher energy costs of 140% of the mean. According to those criteria, around 3.1% of households in Austria are estimated to be energy poor. Of those, around 44% live in buildings constructed before 1960, compared to 29% of households that are not energy poor. 61% of energy-poor households are single households. In 32% of energy-poor households, the basic school diploma is the highest attained education in comparison to 14% of non-energy-poor households. The average Austrian household spends around 4.2% of disposable income on energy expenses related to accommodation. Energy-poor households (according to the definition of Statistik Austria) spend around five times as much, around 20%. Expenses are also higher in absolute numbers. While households in the upper third percentiles of income spend on average 1860€ on energy, energy poor households face substantially higher expenses of 2131€ per year. Energy-poor households have higher costs related to heating, but spend 20% less on warm water and 3% less on cooking. It has to be noted that Statistik Austria only counts those as energy poor who face high energy costs. The statistical analysis does not include households who sacrifice comforts such as heating their dwelling to an adequate level in order to save money. The EU SILC survey 2016 asked participants whether they feel that they are able to do that. 3% of households answered that they were unable to